WHAT IS COFFEE?
Everyone recognizes a roasted coffee bean but unless you have lived or traveled in a coffee growing country, you might not recognize an actual coffee tree. Pruned short in cultivation, but capable of growing more than 30 feet high, a coffee tree is covered with dark-green, waxy leaves growing opposite each other in pairs.
Coffee cherries grow along the tree's branches. It takes nearly a year for a cherry to mature after the flowering of the fragrant, white blossoms. Because it grows in a continuous cycle, it is not unusual to see flowers, green fruit and ripe fruit simultaneously on a single tree. The trees can live as long as 20 – 30 years and are capable of growing in a wide range of climates, as long as there is no harsh fluctuation in temperature. Optimally, they prefer a rich soil and mild temperatures, with frequent rain and shaded sun.
Coffea arabica — C. arabica Varieties: Bourbon, Typica, Caturra, Mundo Novo, Tico, San Ramon, Jamaican Blue Mountain Coffea arabica is descended from the original coffee trees discovered in Ethiopia. These trees produce a fine, mild, aromatic coffee and represent approximately 70 percent of the world's coffee production. On the world market, arabica coffees bring the highest prices. The better arabicas are high grown coffees — generally grown between 2,000 to 6,000 feet above sea level — though optimal altitude varies with proximity to the equator.
The important factor is that temperatures must remain mild, neither too hot nor too cold, ideally between 59 – 75 degrees, with about 60 inches of rainfall a year. The trees are hearty but a heavy frost will kill them. Arabica trees are costly to cultivate because the terrain tends to be steep and access difficult. Also, because the trees are more disease prone than robusta, they require additional care and attention.
Arabica trees are self pollinating. The beans are flatter and more elongated than robusta and lower in caffeine. The Anatomy of a Coffee Cherry The coffee cherry's outer skin is called the exocarp. Beneath it is the mesocarp, a thin layer of pulp, followed by a slimy layer called the parenchyma. The beans themselves are covered in a parchment-like envelope named the endocarp, more commonly referred to as 'the parchment.' Inside the parchment, side-by-side lie two beans, each covered separately by yet another layer of thin membrane. The biological name for this membrane or seed skin is the spermoderm, but it is generally referred to in the coffee trade as the 'silver skin.'
HISTORY OF COFFEE
Expresso Machines In 1822, the first espresso machine was made in France. In 1933, Dr. Ernest Illy invented the first automatic espresso machine. However, the modern-day espresso machine was created by Italian Achilles Gaggia in 1946. Gaggia invented a high pressure espresso machine by using a spring powered lever system.
The first pump driven espresso machine was produced in 1960 by the Faema company. Melitta Bentz Melitta Bentz was a housewife from Dresden, Germany, who invented the first coffee filter. She was looking for a way to brew the perfect cup of coffee with none of the bitterness caused by overbrewing. Melitta Bentz decided to invent a way to make a filtered coffee, pouring boiling water over ground coffee and having the liquid be filtered, removing any grinds. Melitta Bentz experimented with different materials, until she found that her son's blotter paper used for school worked best. She cut a round piece of blotting paper and put it in a metal cup.
On June 20th, 1908, the coffee filter and filter paper were patented. On December 15th, 1908, Melitta Bentz and her husband Hugo started the Melitta Bentz Company. The next year they sold 1200 coffee filters at the Leipziger fair in Germany. The Mellitta Bentz Company also patented the filter bag in 1937 and vacuumpacking in 1962. James Mason James Mason invented the coffee percolator on December 26, 1865. Instant Coffee In 1901, just-add-hot water "instant" coffee was invented by Japanese American chemist Satori Kato of Chicago.
In 1906, English chemist George Constant Washington, invented the first mass-produced instant coffee. Washington was living in Guatemala and at the time when he observed dried coffee on his coffee carafe, after experimenting he created "Red E Coffee" – the brand name for his instant coffee first marketed in 1909. In 1938, Nescafe or freeze-dried coffee was invented. Other Trivia On May 11, 1926, "Maxwell House Good to the last drop" was trademark registered. · © 2014 My Friends · Designed by Themes & Co ·